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A

abortifacient
a drug or chemical agent that induces abortion

absorption
uptake of a substance into the body or a tissue through skin or mucous membrane

accommodation disturbance
disturbance in the ability of the eye to focus

acetylcholinesterase
nuerotransmitter enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, affecting functioning of the parasympathetic nervous system

acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
agent that counteracts hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline

acid
a solution having a pH of less than seven

acinus
small sac-like dilatation

acne
a chronic skin disorder due to inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands (secretion glands in the skin)

actino-
in botany, rayed, starlike

active transport
movement of particles across cell membranes requiring the expenditure of energy

acute
an illness or symptom of sudden onset, which generally has a short duration

addiction
habitual dependence on a substance

Addison's disease
characterized by the chronic destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increased loss of sodium and water in the urine, muscle weakness and low blood pressure. The bronze color of the skin is due to the increased production of the skin pigment, melanin.

additive
the substance being added to another to obtain the desired product (e.g., food colors and food processing).

adenoma
an ordinarily benign growth of epithelial tissue in which the tumor cells form glands or gland-like structures that tend to exhibit glandular function

adjuvant
a substance added to a drug that affects the action of the active ingredient in a predictable way

adnexitis
inflammation of organ appendages, typically referring to the fallopian tube

adrenoceptors
sites on nerve cells or fibers which react to epinephrine or norepinephrine

adsorbent
a solid substance which binds other substances to its surface but does not interact chemically with them

adsorption
the property of a solid substance to attract and hold other molecules to its surface

aegyptiacus
in botany, of Egypt

aglycone
non-carbohydrate portion of a glycoside

agranulocytosis
condition characterized by a marked decrease in the number of white blood cells called granulocytes

AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a syndrome of the immune system caused by the HIV virus which weakens the immune system by destroying T4 helper/inducer lymphocytes

akathisia
condition of motor restlessness that can range from a sense of inner disquiet to inability to sleep, seen in toxic reaction to neuroleptic and antipsychotic medication

albuminuria
presence of albumin in the urine

alcoholic solution
in the case of herb preparations, mixture of water and ethanol used to dissolve an herb or its constituents

-alis
in botany, pertaining to, e.g. digitalis, pertaining to a finger

alkaline
a solution having a pH greater than seven

allergic keratitis
inflammation of the cornea due to allergic response

allergy
hypersensitivity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen), resulting in an increased reactivity to that antigen on subsequent exposure, sometimes with harmful immunologic consequences

alopecia
loss of hair

alpinus
in botany, of high mountains

alterative
a term used in botanical medicine referring to a substance that restores health gradually, similar to a tonic

alveolar
pertaining to a small hollow space, as in the lung, e.g. pulmonary alveolus

amantadine (amantadine hydrochloride)
antiviral agent used to prevent or treat influenza; also used to treat Parkinson's disease

amarum
bitter vegetable drug

ammi
in botany, from an umbelliferous plant

analeptic
central nervous system stimulant

analgesic
agent which relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness

anancastic
pertaining to any form of repetitious stereotyped behavior that causes anxiety if prevented

anaphylactic
intense allergic reaction to a foreign substance

anaphylactic shock
life-threatening allergic response characterized by decreased blood pressure and impaired respiration

ancyclostoma
parasitic hookworm in the human duodenum

anemia
low amounts of red blood cells with clinical symptoms such as shortness of breath, lethargy and heart palpitations

anemo-
in botany, pertaining to wind

anesthesia
loss of sensation caused by neurological dysfunction or a pharmacological depression of nerve function

anesthetic
agent causing loss of sensation by neurological dysfunction or a pharmacological depression of nerve function

aneurysm
localized enlargement of an artery

angina
severe, restricting pain, usually referring to the pectoris

angina pectoris
severe chest pain

angioedema
recurring attacks of transient, subcutaneous edema, often due to an allergic reaction

angioneuropathy
any neuropathy affecting primarily blood vessels as angiospasm, angioparalysis, or vasomotor paralysis

angioneurosis
vasomotor (causing dilation or constriction of the blood vessels) nervous disease for which there is no detectable damage to nerve tissue

angusti-
in botany, narrow

anhydrous
water deficient

aniso-
in botany, uneven, unequal

anorectic
agent that decreases appetite

anterior
in the front or forward part of the organ or toward the head of the body

anthelmintic
agent that expels or destroys intestinal worms

antiandrogenic
substance capable of preventing full expression of the biological effects of androgenic hormones on responsive tissues, either by producing an antagonistic effect, as in the case of estrogen, or by competing for receptor sites on the cell surface

antiarrhythmic
combating an irregular heart beat

antibacterial
destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria

antibody
immunoglobulin molecule evoked as a response to an antigen which then interacts with the antigen

anti-chemotactic
preventing the movement of cells or organisms in response to chemicals

anticholinergic
antagonistic to the cholinergic nerve fibers

anticoagulant
preventing clotting

antiedamatous
preventing swelling

antiemetic
preventing vomiting

anti-exudative
preventing oozing

antifungal
destroying or combating fungi

antigonadotropic
agent preventing growth or function of the testes or ovary

antihistamine
drugs, used to treat allergy symptoms, which block the action of histamine

antiinflammatory
reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms, without directly acting on the cause of inflammation, e.g., glucocorticoids, aspirin

antimicrobial
tending to destroy microbes, hinder their multiplication or growth

antimuscarinic
inhibiting the toxic effect of muscarine or muscarine-like substances

antimycotic
fungicidal

antiparasitic
destructive to parasites

antiphlogistic
preventing inflammation

antiseptic
inhibiting growth of infectious organisms

antisialagogue
counteracts formation of saliva

antispasmodic
preventing spasms

antithyrotropic
inhibiting thyroid hormones

antitussive
cough suppressant

anuria
inability to urinate

-anus
in botany, belonging to, e.g., virginianus, of Virginia

anxiety
apprehension of danger, or dread, accompanied by nervous restlessness, tension, increased heart rate, and shortness of breath unrelated to a clearly identifiable stimulus

aortic stenosis
narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart

aphrodisiac
substance increasing or arousing sexual desire

aplasia
absence of tissue or defective organ development

aplastic anemia
anemia caused by failure of red blood cells to regenerate

apnea
cessation of breathing

apoplexy
sudden neurologic impairment due to a cerebrovascular disorder, e.g., cerebral stroke

aqueous extract
water extract

argyro-
in botany, silvery

-arium
in botany, place where something is done, e.g., herbarium, collection of dried plants

armoracia
in botany, designation for horseradish

aroma corrigent
substance that reduces, neutralizes or enhances an odor

aromatic bitter
bitter used as a flavoring due to its volatile oils

arrhythmia
any deviation from the normal rhythm of the heart

arrythmogenic
causing a change in the normal rhythm of the heart

arteriosclerosis
arterial hardening

arthralgia
joint pain

arthritis
joint inflammation

arthrosis
joint disease

arthrosis deformans
noninfectious degeneration of a joint characterized by pain, cracking, and loss of bone

ascarid
large, heavy-bodied roundworms parasitic in the human intestine

-ascens
in botany, process of becoming, e.g., violascens, becoming violet

ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity

aspiration
inhalation, or removal of fluids or gases from a cavity using suction

asthenia
diminishing strength and energy

astringent
agent causing contraction, especially after topical application

ataxia
failed muscular coordination, irregular muscular action

ataxic
relating to or suffering from ataxia

atelectasis
incomplete lung expansion or lung collapse and airlessness

atherosclerosis
common form of arteriosclerosis with deposits of yellow plaques containing cholesterol, lipids, and lipophages within the intima and inner media of arteries

-aticus
in botany, place of growth, e.g., aquaticus, growing in water

atony
in botany, lack of muscle tone of the supportive musculature of the bladder sphincter, resulting in incontinence

atopic
genetically predisposed toward developing immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental allergens

atopic allergy
genetically determined state of hypersensitivity to environmental allergens

atropine-like effect
anticholinergic effect, resulting in tachycardia, mydriasis, constipation, retention of urine, limited perspiration attributable to the blockade of acetylcholine at muscarinic type cholinergic receptors in the nervous system

-atus
in botany, likeness of possession, rostratus, having a beak

Auerbach's myenteric plexus
network of nerves in the muscular layer of the wall of the digestive tract

autoimmune disease
immune response directed against tissues within one's own body

autumnalis
in botany, of the fall season

axon
an extended process of a neuron that conducts impulses traveling away from the cell body